The convolutional interleaver technique is used in telecommunication applications such as SDH and PDH radio systems, GSM and UMTS mobile communication systems, and point-to-multipoint radio systems to protect transmission channels from noise. On the transmit side, the interleaver parallelizes serial input data into N-bit words and shifts the data word through N delay lines. The delayed data is then shifted out through a PISO shift register for transmission. At the receiver, the incoming data stream is reconstructed with dual delay lines and shift registers.
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